Egeria Publishing ensures best practices in research reporting and high-quality publications. Egeria Publishing endorses and adheres to:
- publication ethics by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE),
- recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing, and publication of scholarly work in medical journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and
- guidelines pertinent to authorship by the Good Publication Practice (GPP).
Submission of a manuscript to Egeria Publishing journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to its content and that the manuscript conforms to the editorial and publishing policies.
Qualification for authorship is recognized based on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for manuscripts submitted to Egeria Publishing. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. The ICMJE lists four conditions for authorship credit and all authors must meet all four conditions in order to be listed.
- Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, and
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and
- Final approval of the version to be published, and
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
For group authorship, the ICMJE states that
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation in the manuscript title page and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section with a brief description on their contribution. Contributors in the acknowledgement section should provide permission to be acknowledged. Financial and material support should also be added to acknowledgements section.
Egeria Publishing follows the COPE guidelines for any changes in authorship. Any changes to the author list, including additions, deletions, and re-ordering after submission requires agreement from all authors. Corresponding author should request the change by providing an explanation and consent from all authors. Egeria Publishing will review the appropriateness of the required change and contact corresponding author with the decision.
Egeria publishing does not permit the change/addition/deletion of authors after the manuscript is approved for publication. However, relevant authorship issues identified after publication may result in a correction. In the case of an authorship dispute, the journal and/or publisher will not arbitrate. If the authors are unable to resolve the dispute themselves, we will raise the issue with the authors’ institution(s) and abide by its guidelines.
The common issues about authorship are based on GPP3 publication practice guidelines and are presented as follows. For more information, please refer to Battisti WP, et al. Good Publication Practice for Communicating Company-Sponsored Medical Research: GPP3. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163:461-464.
Number of authors: It usually depends on the complexity of work involved in research and publication. It would be unusual in research (with few exceptions) to require >10 authors. A high number of authors calls into question whether they could all have provided “substantial intellectual contribution.” Therefore only authors with substantial contribution should qualify for authorship, and other contributors can be acknowledged (e.g., as non-author contributors or collaborators).
Author sequence: This should be determined by authors at the initiation of the work, including the designation of the lead and corresponding authors, who may or may not be the same person. Final order, however, should be based on authors’ actual roles and contributions in the development of the publication (and therefore cannot be agreed upon until this in complete). In general, those who made the greatest contribution are listed first, but alphabetical order may also be used, based on the contribution.
Addition or removal or author: In certain circumstances during the development of a publication, it may be necessary to add or remove an author (e.g., if an author fails to provide a substantial contribution or approve the final version of the work). In such cases, all authors should agree to the change. Only in rare cases where the work has substantial changes in response to reviewers’ comments, addition or removal of an author can be considered after submission.
Death or incapacity of an author: In circumstances, where an author dies after completing a major part of the work, posthumous authorship can be considered if agreed to by all other authors. We suggest, as a first step, seeking advice on correct attribution and process from journal instructions or the editorial office. If the journal agrees to posthumous authorship but requires submission forms to be signed, then in the case of a sponsor-employed author or a contractor, a supervisor may be the most appropriate proxy. Otherwise, a family member or person with power of attorney should be approached. In all cases, efforts should be made to contact the family of the deceased author to inform them of the intention and request their consent to the listing or acknowledgment.
Change of affiliation: If an author changes affiliation before the work is published, his or her affiliation should reflect where the major part of the work was done. The current affiliation and contact details should be listed in the acknowledgment section. Change of affiliation alone is not a valid reason to remove an author from a publication if he or she meets authorship criteria.
Company- or sponsor-employed authors: Sponsor-employed scientists and clinicians are often qualified to participate as authors of company-sponsored research publications and should have that opportunity. Such authors should not be denied authorship because of concerns about perception of bias. Whatever criteria are used to determine authorship should be applied equally to company employees, contractors, and others.
Professional writers as authors: Professional medical writers who meet applicable authorship criteria should be listed as authors. If writers do not meet authorship criteria, their contribution should be disclosed (e.g., as a non-author contributor in the acknowledgment section). Writers who were not involved with study design, data collection, or data analysis and interpretation (e.g., those developing a primary publication from a clinical study report) generally do not meet ICMJE authorship criteria. However, professional writers working on other types of publication (e.g., literature reviews) may qualify as authors.